Author ORCID Identifier

Rabiat Akande: 0000-0001-7536-4018

Document Type


Publication Date


Source Publication

American Journal of International Law. 2024;118(1):1-40. doi:10.1017/ajil.2023.58


More than half a century after the UN’s adoption of the International Convention on the Prohibition of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, a debate has emerged over whether to extend the Convention’s protections to religious discrimination. This Article uses history to intervene in the debate. It argues that racial and religious othering were mutually co-constitutive in the colonial encounter and foundational to the making of modern international law. Moreover, the contemporary proposal to address the interplay of racial and religious othering is hardly new; iterations of that demand surfaced in the earlier twentieth century, as well. By illuminating the centrality of race-religion othering to the colonial encounter and chronicling failed attempts by Europe’s “others” to secure international legal protections, this Article makes a case for crafting an attuned response in the present.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.