Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Date


Source Publication

Kalina Arabadjieva, Nicola Countouris, Bianca Luna Fabris and Wouter Zwysen, Transformative ideas – ensuring a just share of progress for all, ETUI, 2023, pp. 93-103


Personal work approach; future of work; subordination; remote work


This chapter offers a reappraisal of the idea of ‘personal work’ and a critical assessment of the concept of subordination, which shapes the traditional contract of employment and subordinate work. The authors suggest that the notion of personal work may be more useful in attempts to develop a newly conceptualised concept of human labour, one capable of incorporating certain dimensions of (unpaid) gendered labour, ‘heteromated’ labour (‘heteromation’ is the extraction of economic value from low-cost or free labour in computer-mediated networks), and other forms of socially (and ecologically) valuable labour that hitherto have been excluded from the realm of formal, protected and paid employment.