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Karen Drake & Brenda L Gunn, eds, Renewing Relationships: Indigenous Peoples and Canada (Saskatoon: Indigenous Law Centre, 2019)


When non-Indigenous people made their way to North America, both conflicting and complementary social norms existed between explorers and the land’s original inhabitants. Capable of agreeing with, often challenging, and regularly borrowing each other’s ideas, people of early post-contact times demonstrated how they could have different values and processes but could still cooperate. So while colonialism certainly stifled, if not terminated, some Indigenous processes, local concepts still often prevailed and governed all those who inhabited a space—including the non-Indigenous. Canada’s post-contact past is as much about the adherence to Indigenous jurisdiction as it is about an external force’s interpretation of sovereignty.