Document Type


Publication Date


Source Publication

(2016) African Yearbook of International Law (accepted)


The article argues that the evidence that has been systematically analyzed in the study that grounds this volume at once support and undermine certain elements of the two theoretical frameworks that grounded the research: Upendra Baxi’s germinal theory on the emergence to global dominance of a kind of “trade-related market-friendly human rights” (TREMF) paradigm/discourse/mentality, and Martha Finnemore and Karthryn Sikikink’s strategic social constructivist theory on the role of the norm entrepreneur in generating and driving the so-called human rights “norm life cycles.” The article then suggests, in consequence, that both of these theoretical frameworks require a (modest) measure of refinement.