Author ORCID Identifier

Trevor C.W. Farrow: 0000-0001-5236-076X

Patricia McMahon: 0009-0009-0595-2143

Richard Haigh: 0000-0002-2828-8566

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Dean Trevor Farrow, Osgoode Hall Law School

Glenn Stuart, Law Society of Ontario

Amy Salyzyn, University of Ottawa

Patricia McMahon, Osgoode Hall Law School

Richard Haigh and Stephen Fulford, Osgoode Hall Law School

Giuseppina (Pina) D’Agostino, Osgoode Hall Law School

Molly Reynolds, Torys

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is dramatically reshaping how people live, work, and interact, as well as the functioning of societies and legal systems’ adaptations to these changes. Machine learning technologies’ integration into various decision-making processes carries profound implications for sentencing, taxation, workplace dynamics, surveillance and policing, privacy, and financial markets. The rising automation of human activities prompts significant legal inquiries spanning constitutional, contractual, and tort issues. Large Language Models (LLMs) such as Chat GPT are AI technologies with a range of legal, ethical, and societal implications. These models, trained on massive volumes of text data, can generate text resembling human language, enabling tasks like answering questions, writing essays, even crafting poetry. They implicate freedom of expression, the right to information, and the democratic process at large. They have the potential to generate misleading, harmful, or hateful content, regardless of their programmers’ and owners’ intentions. They could become tools for propaganda or disinformation campaigns. They raise intellectual property questions, particularly when their output is based on pre-existing intellectual or artistic works and could lead to mass job automation.