Tonita Murray


Corruption; Economic development--Corrupt practices; Kenya; Afghanistan

Document Type



The United Nations estimates that 30 per cent of all international development funding is lost to corruption. Identifying and understanding the dynamics of how such corruption occurs at the ground level could help to reduce opportunities for the diversion of funds from public purposes to private uses. An analysis of two highly publicized corruption cases in Kenya and one in Afghanistan identifies some common characteristics that may also be present in other cases around the world. The characteristics fall into four categories: (1) political, social, and cultural; (2) governance; (3) people; and (4) international. Different understandings of corruption, weak government and laws, illegitimate involvement of powerful politicians or their relatives, and ineffective international mechanisms for preventing corruption all contribute to the loss of development funding. The article describes these characteristics and discusses remedies for addressing them.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.