Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Laws (LLM)

First Advisor

Beare, Margaret Evelyn


This thesis examines domestic authorities’ use of non-criminal justice responses to counter organized crime. Examples of responses used to counter outlaw motorcycle gangs in Canada, Germany, and Iceland are provided. These responses are significantly different from most international efforts focusing on criminal norms and cooperation in criminal matters.

As harmonization of legislation, policies and practices in this field become an international focus, I examine the role currently played by the European Union in promoting these non-criminal justice 'alternative' enforcement strategies for the purpose of furthering the development of international and domestic efforts to counter organized crime.

This study concludes that the European Union is, in fact, promoting this approach through International Soft Law. The thesis then examines whether there are the same concerns pertaining to matters such as due process and democratic principles as previously raised with international efforts to suppress organized crime within the field of Transnational Criminal Law.