The article examines and appraises conventional methods of interpreting the section 15 equality rights including a comparison of equality rights under the American Constitution. It determines that the most suitable interpretation is one which prohibits "constructive discrimination." Further, the analysis of section 15 finds a built-in limitation - the right against invidious discrimination - making recourse to section 1 unnecessary. But review of constructive discrimination and its justification is constrained by the adjudicative model and the state action doctrine. In the final analysis, the article challenges us to rethink our classic liberal conceptions of equality by looking less at invidious states action and more at the equality of result - yet accepting that the courts are a limited forum.
"Discrimination and Its Justification: Coping with Equality Rights under the Charter."
Osgoode Hall Law Journal